Does my ex-spouse need to open a Betterment account to receive funds?

If you wish for Betterment to facilitate the transfer of funds between individual accounts, then your ex-spouse does need to open a Betterment account. Among other things, this allows us to verify their identity, which is a required part of the transfer process. As soon as the funds have been transferred to an account in their name, they may transfer to a different provider if they wish.